E. Cooper, "Programming language support for multicast communication in distributed system," in Proc. 10th International ConferenceDistributed Computing Systems (ICDCS-10), (Paris, France), IEEE, May 1990.
Abstract: Multicast or group communication is an important part of modern distributed systems, but programming language support for such communication is uncommon. Remote procedure call uses a familiar programming language abstraction to support unicast request-response communication; what should the corresponding abstraction be for multicast communication? The essential and desirable properties of a language construct for multicast communication are presented first. Essential properties include type safety, expressive power, and efficiency. Desirable properties include use of familiar control and data structures, appropriate semantic level, and first-class treatment of multicast operations in progress. The main contribution of the paper is the introduction of a spectrum of abstractions for multicast communication, in increasing order of both desirability and semantic level: functional mapping, iterators, and streams. Examples of distributed algorithms from the literature are used to illustrate the expressive power of each mechanism. Streams in particular provide first-class status for multicast communication in progress, and can be implemented efficiently in typical multicast communication architectures.
Annotation: Note: Also available as tech report CMU-CS-90-121, School of Computer Science, Carnegie-Mellon
Stephen Casner, Karen Seo, Winston Edmond, and Claudio Topolcic, "N-Way Conferencing with Packet Video," in Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Packet Video, (Morristown, New Jersey), Mar. 1990.
Abstract: This paper describes a packet video system implementation in which commercial codecs were adapted to exploit the benefit of packet switching while addressing the problems as follows: 1) clock synchronization was obviated by asychronous operation, 2) delay was reduced by bandwidth reservation and fast packet forwarding, 3) packet loss was reduced by bandwidth reservation and forward error correction.
Keywords: packet video
Annotation: Describes TWBnet, using BBN dual bus protocol featuring slot reuse, multicasting and bandwidth preallocation.
Stephen E. Deering and David R. Cheriton, "Multicast routing in datagram internetworks and extended LANs," ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, vol. 8, pp. 85-110, May 1990.
Abstract: Multicasting, the transmission of a packet to a group of hosts, is an important service for improving the efficiency and robustness of distributed systems and applications. Although multicast capability is available and widely used in local area networks, when those LANs are interconnected by store-and-forward routers, the multicast service is usually not offered across the resulting internetwork. To address this limitation, we specify extensions to two common internetwork routing algorithms - distance-vector routing and link-state routing - to support low-delay datagram multicasting beyond a single LAN. We also describe modifications to the single-spanning tree routing algorithm commonly used by link-layer bridges, to reduce the costs of multicasting in large extended LANs. Finally, we discuss how the use of multicast scope control and hierarchical multicast routing allows the multicast service to scale up to large internetworks.
Keywords: multicast; routing; local area network; broadcast; datagram; distance-vector routing; hierarchical routing; internetwork; link-state routing; reverse path forwarding; routing
M. de Prycker, M. de Somer, J. Vandedrinck, and M. van Laethem, "An ATM Switching Architecture with intrinsic multicast capabilities for the Belgian Broadband Experiment," in International Switching Symposium, vol. 5 of 6, (Stockholm), pp. 111-118, May 1990.
Keywords: ATM; Switching network
Annotation: The paper describes the architecture of the transport network in the local exchange (LEX) and the Subscriber group equipment (SGE) to be implemented for the Belgian broadband experiment.
R. J. F. De~Vries, "ATM Multicast Connections using the Gauss Switch," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Global Communications (GLOBECOM), (San Diego, California), pp. 211-217, Dec. 1990.
Keywords: ATM; Switching; multicast
Annotation: In order to support multiparty calls in BISDN ATM switches withgood multicast capabilities are required. Gauss is an architecture for a high-speed ATM switching element (ASE) which can easily be adjusted in order to meet this demand. Gauss uses out-put queueing, a broadcast bus, a limited increase in internal speed and a self-routing method to get a number of favourable properties.
J. Y. Hui and T. Renner, "Queueing Strategies for Multicast Packet Switching," in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Global Communications (GLOBECOM), (San Diego, California), pp. 1431-1437, Dec. 1990.
Keywords: ATM; multicast; queueing discipline; performance evaluation; nalysis
Annotation: We consider multicast packet switching for which an input may send the same packet to many outputs within an ATM time slot. A host of multicast queueing disciplines can be exercised. Assuming only independent Head of Line service to an output from slot to slot, we derive the delay performance and saturation throughput. We then examine the accuracy of the assumption for different disciplines via extensive simulation.
C. K. Kim and T. T. Lee, "Performance of Call Splitting Algorithms for Multicast Traffic," in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE Infocom), (San Francisco, California), IEEE, June 1990.
Parham Momtahan and Ragui Kamel, "PX Connection Architecture," in Proc. International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV), (Berkeley, California), Nov. 1990. TR-90-062.
Keywords: multimedia; packet voice; operating system
Annotation: see also \cite Logical channel and message exchange architecture. Events are multicast by receiver request. Notes that cacheing policies may be ineffective for audio data.
Benjamin. Monderer, Giovanni. Pacifici, and Charles. Zukowski, "The Cylinder Switch; An Architecture for a Manageable VLSI Giga-cell Switch," in Conference Record of the International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 567-571, 310.4.1-310.4.5, 1990.
Keywords: resource allocation, hardware; buffer management, hardware; VLSI; multicasting; multicast; buffer, ring buffer multiplexer; buffer, cylinder buffer; resource allocation, slot reservation; switch design; QOS (quality of service); cell blocking; ATM
Joseph Pasquale and George Polyzos, "System Support for Multimedia Applications," in Proc. International Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio and Video (NOSSDAV), (Berkeley, California), Nov. 1990. TR-90-062.
Annotation: Operating system I/O and network multicasting.
S. C. Tu and W. H. Leung, "Multicast connection-oriented packet switching networks," in Conference Record of the International Conference on Communications (ICC), vol. 2, pp. 308.4.1 - 7, Apr. 1990.
Keywords: Multipoint; packet switching; traffic matrix; traffic flow analysis
Annotation: In this paper, four flavours of multicast connections (MC) are defined over a wide-area multicast packet switching network. Thenetwork-layer sending/receiving relationship for a MC is represented by a transmission matrix (TM). By employing a packet flowmodel, we derive some necessary and sufficient conditions for various flavours of MCs to support a given TM. A multicast routing algorithm is also given to illustrate MC setup.
S C. Tu and W H. Leung, "Multicast Connection-Oriented Packet Switching Networks," in Conference Record of the International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 495-501, 308.4.1-308.4.6, 1990.
Keywords: WAN; multicast; multicast, routing; testbed; testbed, MARS; multicast connection; multicast, multicast, MPSN (multicast packet switching network); multicast, MPS (multicast packet switch)
E. Walker, P. Neves, and R. Floyd, "Asynchronous remote operation execution in distributed systems," in Proc. 10th International ConferenceDistributed Computing Systems (ICDCS-10), (Paris, France), IEEE, May 1990.
Abstract: Remote procedure call (RPC) has become a widely accepted interprocess communication mechanism in distributed systems. The popularity of RPC stems from its simple call syntax and semantics, and its support for compile-time type checking and automatic interface generation. However, the synchronous nature of RPC makes it difficult to take advantage of the parallelism inherent in a distributed environment. We have implemented an asynchronous remote operation execution facility that retains the benefits of the RPC abstraction, but allows execution to proceed locally in parallel with remote execution and provides extensive support for managing replies. This paper describes the design and implementation of our facility, and shows how it can be easily used to support many common interprocess communication styles, including RPC, multicast, broadcast, returning incremental results, and the multiplexing of multiple remote computations.
Keywords: Distributed Systems
Gerald Weiss and Chaim Ziegler, "A comparative analysis of implementation mechanisms for packet voice conferencing," in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE Infocom), vol. 3, (San Francisco, California), pp. 1062-1070, IEEE, June 1990.
Abstract: A distributed control mechanism for managing a multi-party, packet switched voice connection has been previously supposed (Ziegler, Weiss and Friedman, 1989). The principal concept introduced was to view a conference connection as a logical ring of participants. Alternate methods for implementing voice conferencing on both multicast-capable and non-multicast-capable networks were discussed and analyzed. In (Weiss, 1988), the mechanisms were extended to conferences across interconnected networks. This paper presents a quantitative comparative analysis between the alternate implementation methods with respect to network transmission capabilities, gateway design, and the presence or absence of silence detection algorithms. Performance measures presented include station, gateway, and network workloads.
Keywords: packet voice; voice conference; teleconferencing; conference control
Annotation: Excessive delay may make logical ring method infeasible. Also, difficult to accomodate changing number of participants.
Chaim Ziegler and Gerald Weiss, "Mechanism for integrated voice and data conferencing," in SIGCOMM Symposium on Communications Architectures and Protocols (Deepinder P. Sidhu, ed.), (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), pp. 101-107, ACM, Sept. 1990. also in \em Computer Communication Review 20 (4), Oct. 1990.
Abstract: A distributed control mechanism for managing a multi-party, packet switched voice conference connection has been previously presented (Weiss 1988, Weiss 1990, Ziegler 1989). The principal concept introduced was to view a conference connection as a logical ring of participants. Alternate methods for implementing voice conferencing on both multicast-capable and non-multicast-capable networks were discussed and analyzed. The mechanisms were shown applicable to both intranet and internet conferences. This paper extends these results to allow for multiparty, integrated voice and data conferences. The paper introduces the technique developed and then presentes experimental benchmark performance measures with respect to station and gateway workloads.
Keywords: packet voice; multicast; LAN