This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it. That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper.
STEP 1. CHOOSE A
STEP 2. FIND INFORMATION
STEP 3. STATE YOUR THESIS
STEP 4. MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE
STEP 5. ORGANIZE YOUR NOTES
STEP 6. WRITE YOUR FIRST DRAFT
STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT
Checklist One Checklist Two
STEP 8. TYPE FINAL PAPER
Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research.
Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from "Religion" to "World Religion" to "Buddhism". Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher.
Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials.
Surf the Net.
For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica, or Encarta, etc. Use Search Engines and other search tools as a starting point.
Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate Web sites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time.
The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name (personal names set to launch in May 2002), .ws (WebSite), .cc (from Cocos Island) or .sh (from St. Helena) or .tv (from Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if Books.com is unavailable, you can register as Books.ws or Books.info via a service agent such as Register.com.
Depending on the information you are searching, the Internet is not always the easiest nor the first place you should try especially if you don't have ready access to a computer. Some students unnecessarily line up for a computer to find the meaning of a word when they should be using their common sense, i.e. a simple dictionary. Often the traditional printed resource, such as an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an almanac, or a directory, can provide you with the needed information much faster. This situation may change, however, as libraries provide more free Internet access, subscribe more to online resources and buy fewer printed materials.
To find books in the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).
Check out other print materials available in the Library:
Check out online resources, Web based information services, or resource materials on CD-ROMs:
Check out Public and University Libraries, businesses, government agencies,
as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community.
Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information.
As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to use a browser that provides you with the URL and date of access on every printed page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.
Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief.
All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral.
Example of an outline:
I. Shakespeare's life A. Early life in Stratford 1. Shakespeare's family a. Shakespeare's father b. Shakespeare's mother 2. Shakespeare's marriage B. The Elizabethan Theater 1. The Globe Theater a. History of the Globe b. Owners of the Globe c. Structure of the Globe 2. Acting companies a. Men and boys b. Sponsorships II. Shakespeare's plays A. Hamlet B. Romeo and Juliet
The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative.
INTRODUCTION - State your thesis and the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.
BODY - This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point.
CONCLUSION - Restate your thesis. Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.
Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place. You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.
Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.
Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b - meaning that the item "Accessing WWW" belongs in the following location of your outline:
I. Understanding the Internet A. What is the Internet 3. How to "Surf the Net" b. Accessing WWW
Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline.
Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I.
Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc.
Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined.
If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as "#" to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed.
Read your paper for any errors in content. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind.
1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear?
2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?
3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence?
4. Are all sources cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing?
5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments?
6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay?
Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check if using a word processor. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you cannot.
1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence?
2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples?
3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences?
4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words?
5. Varying lengths of sentences?
6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next?
7. Any spelling or grammatical errors?
8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation?
9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format?
10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use "cannot" instead of "can't", "do not" instead of "don't"?
11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as "I think", "I guess", "I suppose"
12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective?
13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper?
For an excellent source on English
composition, check out Elements
of Style by William Strunk, Jr.
All formal reports or essays should be typewritten.
Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated.
Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive.
Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline. This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for marking, ask yourself: "Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?"
Please visit the Ontario Library Association Website to access Information Studies: Kindergarten to Grade 12 for details on Information Literacy - "the key to helping students use learning throughout their lives as a way to solve problems, act ethically, plan for the future and prepare for change." This is a massive and well developed site that provides detailed grade by grade information on achievement levels, inquiry and research, information technologies, information and society as they apply to students from Kindergarten to Grade 12. Explanatory notes and appendices are also included.
1. How to Write A+ Paper
1a. Style Guides MLA APA
2. Search Engines
3. Presentation Tips
4. Format Paper
5. Quoting Passages
7. Footnotes & Endnotes
8. First Footnotes Examples
8a. Sample Footnotes
8b. Sample Endnotes
9. Parenthetical Reference
9a. Sample Parenthetical Ref
10. Works Cited
11. Guidelines on Writing Bibliography - MLA Style
|12. How to
12a. Sample Bibliography / Works Cited - MLA Style
12b. Bible Abbreviations
12c. Month/Day Abbreviations
13. USA, Canada, World
13a. Country Codes
13b. National Anthems
14. Survive Internet
15. Virtual Library of Useful URLs Subject Headings
19. Biomes & Ecozones
20. Canadian Cities
21. The Crucible
23. Global Connections
24. Golden Horseshoe
25. Grapes of Wrath
27. Lord of the Flies
28. Measuring Time
29. Renewable Energy
30. Square One Older Adult Centre
31. Web Design for Beginners
33. WWW Links - Add URL
000-005 Computers / Reference
006-099 Computers / Reference
100 Philosophy / Psychology
200 Religion / Mythology
332-337 Social Sciences
338-349 Social Sciences
350-369 Social Sciences
370-371 Social Sciences
372-399 Social Sciences
500-539 Science / Math
540-599 Science / Math
600-628 Technology / Health / Business
629-699 Technology / Health / Business
700-779 Arts / Music / Sports
780-799 Arts / Music / Sports
900-940 History / Geography
941-999 History / Geography
|Last modified: 30 September 2003|